Critical Analysis of a Journal Article: Hussain and Hassan (2016)

Leadership is a complex phenomenon, and it is often hard to define due to the extensive literature that is available on the topic. Hence, in an attempt to converge the literature on leadership, Critical Analysis of a Journal Article Hussain and Hassan (2016) conducted a study titled ‘The leadership styles dilemma in the business world’. The title of the paper suits its contents because it successfully highlights many contemporary leadership styles and models. Moreover, the study also presented some fundamental leadership styles representing most leadership styles. The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the study of Hussain and Hassan (2016).

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The introduction of the paper sets tone for the study. Without going into unnecessary details, the authors simply delved into its core issue. The problem statement was to find out the fundamental leadership styles which can be deemed as representatives of most leadership styles mentioned in the existing literature. For this purpose, a thorough review of the literature was conducted.

The paper’s literature review consists of a succinct analyses of contemporary leadership styles and theories. The review dissects the strengths and limitations of leadership models, albeit briefly. In the light of the previous studies, for instance, inter alia, on the basis of Bass (1985) and Ensley, Hmieleski, and Pearce (2006), the authors highlighted that traits such as, open communication, consideration, integrity and tolerant behavior are present in all leadership styles. Using factor analysis, Hussain and Hassan (2016) sorted out 28 leadership styles.

Talking about the methodology of the study, it can be observed that Hussain and Hassan (2016) used a mix research approach. The authors analyzed thirty one (31) automobile companies in Lahore. Their primary work is a quantitative exploratory research which was done using a field survey, while qualitative research was also used to name various leadership styles. They selected automobile parts and accessories manufacturing industry for their study. The choice of industry is commendable as a large sample reduced the chance of errors and made the results generalizable. The authors adopted correlation matrix method to analyze the correlations between 28 commonly occurring leadership styles. Furthermore, factor loading method was used to narrow down the leadership styles to four integrated styles. The authors came up with their own unique model containing called TAPD, which contained four basic leadership styles- Transformational, Authoritative, Pacesetting and Democratic. The null hypothesis stated that the model illustrated by the four factors (integrated leadership styles) did not represent all leadership styles found in the literature, whilst the alternative hypothesis presumed that it did. In order to carry out statistical and factor analysis of their findings, Hussain and Hassan (2016) made use of two regression software, SPSS and the SmartPLS3.

The statistical and factorial analysis conducted by Hussain and Hassan (2016) resulted in a significant value of Cronbach’s Alpha. It reflected that internal consistency of items (with Cronbach’s Alpha>0.7) was high. The paper concludes that there is a strong need to integrate different leadership styles, because due to a dearth of time, the leaders do not have time to read the extensive literature.

This study eventually integrated different leadership styles to present its own ‘unique’ leadership model. Despite its accurate findings, the study fails to take into account cultural factors and their impact on leadership styles. It is to be noted that almost all of the literature studies reviewed by Hussain and Hassan (2016) were conducted in Western part of the world. Nonetheless, Hussain and Hassan (2016) conducted their study in Pakistan, an Eastern country, which has different cultural and ethnic overtones that can potentially influence leadership styles. Moreover, the conclusion of Hussain and Hassan (2016)’s study offers general discussion on leadership models and styles, and makes little mention of the researchers’ own study and its implications. Notwithstanding its limitations, the study can serve as a steppingstone for business managers, especially because it suggests the need to create a balance in the leader’s temperament and his/her leadership style.


Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Ensley, M., Hmieleski, K., & Pearce, C. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), pp. 217–231.

Hussain, M., & Hassan, H. (2016). The leadership Styles Dilemma in the Business World. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 5(4), pp. 411-425.

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